Disinfection and decontamination.

You may need to clean or clean a wound in many different circumstances. The procedures will not be the same and the products will be different depending on whether they will be applied to live cells, a wound, or healthy skin. As much you care for your wound there will be more significant rehabilitation.

Disinfection of wounds 

A wound exposes cells that are usually protected by the screen that represents the most superficial part of the skin, the epidermis. These cells will as much as possible remains alive and the technique or product used will kill foreign microorganisms or prevent them from developing without damaging human cells.

Under these conditions, it will exclude all products too aggressive or unnecessary. Thus products such as alcohol, smoking , ether, Dakin or undiluted beta dine, hydrogen peroxide, have no place because they are toxic to the cells and therefore likely to delay or stop the healing process. In addition, the death of the cells of the body will promote the proliferation of microbes, which goes against the goal. 

Other products are useless. They do not kill the cells of the body, but they do not kill germs either. This is the case of eosin or mercurochrome whose utility is mainly to tan the periphery of the wound, not to disinfect the inside of the wound.

Normally doctors give cortisone injections before starting the treatment. It provides potent drugs directly into the affected regions, like a particular joint or limb, together with decreased side effects. The main product to use will be chlorhexidine in all these forms. One can first rinse a dirty wound with saline. Diluted Dakin and diluted betadine are also useful. Dakin is preferentially used for genital mucosa. Betadine is especially on the very dirty wound, it is against indicated in case of allergy with the iodine and should not be applied on the skin or the wound if one has already used to clean mercurial derivatives, it generates chemical burns. 
Mercurial derivatives such as section or mercryl are used in case of animal bite because they are effective on the rabies virus. In this case, the prescription of betadine should be excluded. Their use does not exempt from the vaccination control of the animal and from
Finally, there are hyperosmotic products, the best known being honey. Doctors generally prescribe “colloid” plates that are more practical to use. These products prevent microbial growth and respect the cells of the body. They must be laid for 2 to 3 days. In addition they have a detersive effect, that is to say they absorb impurities from the wound (dead tissues, tars, dust). The detergent effect does not exempt from cleaning. 

Whatever the wound, the tetanus vaccination must be up-to-date or updated. Even with a delay of 10 or 20 years, a simple vaccination is enough to boost immunity in subjects who have been properly vaccinated in childhood. 

Decontamination.

Decontamination is the killing of dangerous germs in the environment. The skin must be decontaminated in several circumstances: 
* In case of epidemic or contagious diseases (influenza, gastro enteric, bronchitis etc.) and in case of contact with an immunodeficient person (chemotherapy, proven AIDS for example). 
* In case of care with risk of accidental inoculation of a germ (surgical act, infiltration). 


In these cases, we will clean especially the hands, with a detergent type Betadine. The intensity of the cleaning will depend on the gesture that will follow. A superficial cleaning will result in superficial sprouts included in the epidermis, the effect obtained will be the opposite of the desired effect.
To avoid this paradoxical effect, the surgeon will carry out an extended brush stripping of his hands and forearms in order to remove the superficial part of the epidermis. The associated antiseptic product will kill the germs. He will put in more gloves and a sterile outfit. 
For an infiltration, the procedure will be substantially identical: thorough and repetitive cleaning of the hands and the area to be injected, 
For a simple injection, the skin will be buffered with an antiseptic (alcoholic gel, dakin, betadine, chlorinexidine, etc.) avoid rubbing to avoid highlighting the germs present in the superficial part of the epidermis. This type of disinfection is sufficient for these small gestures,

When it comes to not sharing your germs with the neighbor or the family, washing your hands regularly is as effective as the use of a hydroalcoholic gel, For cons it is necessary to wear a mask because a lot of germs , even for gastroenteritis, broadcast by respiratory air, These are all advice given on the occasion of influenza A, forgotten today, and remain valid for all people carrying a contagious disease, gastroenteritis, influenza , angina to name only the most common.

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